Asslam o Alikum! I want to know what is obtrusive and unobtrusive?what is mean of bias Please explain this in easy word.

Unobtrusive is actually a non-participant observation; the researcher may collect the needed data without becoming an integral part of the organizational system. For example; the researcher may sit in the corner of an office and watch and record how the manger spends his time.

Contrary to this; obtrusive is participant observation. In this type of observation, researcher becomes the part of the work team. For example; if a researcher needs to observe dynamics of work organization, the researcher may join the organization as an employee and observe the dynamics in the groups while being the part of the work organization and work groups.

Bias is partial inclination towards one perspective and avoiding possible merits of the other point of view.

Asslam o Alikum! Can you explain internal validity and external validity in easy words?i want to know pretest and protest?

Validity is very important for the experiment. There are two major types of validities that are of major concern:

• Internal validity: it ensures that whether only independent variable has caused change in the dependent variable. It means all extraneous factors are to be controlled.
• External validity: it ensures whether cause and effect relationship can be generalized. It means sample has to be representative so that results can be generalized

Whereas, Pre-testing is done before and post-testing is done after giving the treatment. In pretesting subjects are measured on some dependent variable, without giving any treatment. Whereas, in posttest, after applying treatment, level of change is measured.

You are directed to study my previous post about internal validity and external validity for more detail. Click here

Sir, Please understand me….. Correlation of Coefficient? also tell me some its examples.

Correlation analysis is a statistical tool; used for the investigation of relationships between variables. Generally, this analysis helps to investigate the relationship of one variable with the other one for example to what extent, the relationship between job satisfaction and performance is strong or weak.

Dear respected sir,  Please explain me this statement… What do you mean by affiliation between two parties???