# Dare to Ask Mian Aamir Part 7 All about VU Final Project (2013)

#### Dear sir,please write me this point in simple words that how history effect and testing effect affect the internal validity in vu final project

A specific event in the external environment in vu final project may affect the results of posttest. For example, a researcher wants to see the effect of advertising on the sales of a particular brand of water in MKT619 vu final project. He examines the sales before advertisement and then launches the advertising campaign. But in the same days, there is press report showing the contamination of drinking water, may affect the sales after advertising campaign. That is why it is a threat to internal validity.

When the pretest is conducted, respondents are sensitized and this affects the posttest results. For example, a researcher wants to see the effect of training on the knowledge of employees. He conducted a test to test the knowledge of employees before training and after training. If the question in pretest and posttest are same, employees become familiar and definitely score high in posttest. This is known as testing effect. In this scenario, the true effect of training cannot be judged. That is why it is a threat to internal validity.

#### Dear sir,please tell me about the frequency distribution and objective of statistics in vu final year project

Frequency distribution is an arrangement of the values that one variable take in a sample. It means that how many times a specific value occurs in a sample. In this way, the frequency distribution table summarizes the distribution of values in the sample.

In VU final project Statistics deals with the organization of data, analysis of data, and interpretation of data. Its purpose is to arrange the data in such a manner that it should be analyzed and some inferences can be developed on the basis of that data. Its main objective is to make inferences about a population based on information collected from a sample.

#### Dear sir,please inform me about stratified random sampling.I am unable to draw some possible conclusion.

A method of sampling that involves the division of a population into smaller groups (known as strata) is called stratified random sampling. Strata is a subgroup of population in which elements are homogenous (similar in characteristics) and different groups or strata are heterogeneous (different in characteristics) in a population.

In stratified random sampling, the strata are formed based on member’s shared attributes or characteristics. Then a random sample from each stratum is taken. For example, we want to collect data from a town. First of all, we divide the town into block (strata) and select a random sample of blocks. Then we select a random sample of streets from the selected blocks. And then we randomly select the houses in order to get data from the selected streets.

#### Dear sir,please tell me how reactivity is threat towards external validity in vu final project with example.

First of all you have to understand what is reactivity? Reactivity is a phenomenon that occurs when a person changes his behavior because he knows that he is being observed by someone. If a person behaves differently in experiment than he behaves in real life, because he knows that he is being observed by the experimenter, it may cause a threat to validity of experiment. The reason is that, the real behavior of the person is not observed.

For example, a researcher is doing experiment to see the effect of noise on productivity. He measures productivity in the environment with no noise. Then he created some noise in the environment in order to see the effect of this change on productivity. The persons working, if they know that they are being observed, may think that their performance is being measured for the purpose of appraisal. And they may perform better even in the noise. So, in this case, researcher could not measure the true effect of noise on productivity.

#### Dear sir ,please tell me about manifest and latent coding with example

While doing content analysis, one can observe the contents and create a coding for analysis in two ways: one is manifest coding and the other is latent coding.

Manifest means clear or obvious and latent means hidden. For example, you are doing content analysis of an essay. Manifest coding describes what the author definitely has written. For instance, you count the number of times a phrase or word appears in the written text. This type of coding is manifest coding. On the other hand, latent coding describes intention of author. For instance, you read a paragraph and decide whether it contains vulgar themes or a romantic mood. This type of coding is latent coding.

#### Dear sir,how statistical regression is affect the internal validity with example.

We appreciate your concern. Statistical regression affects the internal validity the members chosen for experimental group have extreme values of dependent variable. For example, if a manger wants to see the effectiveness of a training program in order to increase the performance of sales personnel. If he selects the personnel with already high performance in terms of sales, the effect of new training program will be very low, because they are already performing well and have the knowledge and experience. If the manager only selects the personnel with very low performance, the affect of training program will be very high, because training program will help them to improve their performance significantly. Thus those who are on the extremes do not reflect the true cause and effect relationship. That’s why it is a threat to validity.

(You can check your email for regression analysis, sheet is presenting relationship of training and employee performance for your help. Hope you will understand. If you feel any ambiguity, feel free to ask.)

The effect of two variables together is likely to be greater than the individual effect of each variable. This phenomenon is known as interaction effect. For example, an employee is producing 100 units in normal conditions. If noise is there in the environment, productivity of employees decreases and he can produce only 90 units. And if there is no proper light, he can produces 95 units. But when the both the factors (noise and less light) is there he can produces only 80 units. It shows that when two factors are combined, there combined effect might be greater.

#### What is ignorance and irrationality? explain it with example.

Dear student

We are dealing only research related query, If you are having problem other then research you can send your email to your respective university,s instructor in this regards. however your query has been replied

Ignorance

Ignorance means lack of knowledge in order to take a decision. If a person is ignorant he operates under uncertainty. For example, if a person purchases mobile phone in Rs.10, 000 from his local market. He could get the same phone from the main market in Rs.9500. In this case decision is made on ignorance basis, because he does not know the prices of mobile phones in the main market.

Irrationality

Irrationality means decisions which are taken without any logic. Irrational decisions are counter to any logic.

For example, a person has Rs.50, 000 to spend per month to run his family. He spends Rs.45, 000 on the purchase of luxuries, and only Rs.5000 for the purchase of necessities. So in this case his behavior is irrational because he is spending a very large amount of his income in the purchase of luxuries rather than necessities.

#### Please explain contrived and non-contrived with examples

A non-contrived setting is the natural environment in which events normally occur. Field studies and field experiments are examples of non-contrived settings. Organizational committees and work-teams are often based on field research.

Whereas, in contrived observation, the researcher artificially creates the situation s/he wants to observe. Contrived observation is very useful when a company is trying to monitor the service quality provided by its employees or channel members. For example, the owner of a fast food franchise may send observers to its franchise outlets disguised as customers to record the quality of food, cleanliness, speed of service, employee courtesy, etc. Similar subjects are chosen carefully to respond to certain manipulated stimuli. These studies are referred to as lab experiments.

#### Difference between sampling unit and sample in VU final project with the help of example?

In single stage sampling the sampling unit and sample are same, in multistage sampling, sampling units and sample are different. For example the researcher has to select MBA from any university, with 3 CGPA. Now first stage is to select university, second is to select MBA and then separate MBA with 3 CGPA which is real sample. Sampling unit is the universities from which the sample will be collected.