# Dare to Ask Mian Aamir all about MBA VU Project Reports

Dear Student

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However, most of the discussion on this issue is inclined that the type of research is a good determinant to answer the question whether research can be initiated with or without literature review. For an instance if research is of altogether exploratory nature where there is no literature available then research can be initiated without literature review. But in general literature review is essential step for conducting a research as literature review serves the purpose of defining, redefining the direction of research topic, integrating what is known in an area and helps to build researcher’ confidence on topic.

Hope it will clear your concept

Kindly give some examples of continuous and discontinuous  variables?

A variable that can take or that can be expressed as an infinite number of values is called continuous variable. For this variable any value is possible within the limits. For example the CGPA which ranges 0 to 4 or in some cases 0 to 5, students can get any value like 1.21, 2.29, 3.10, 4.99 etc. Other examples are blood pressure, height, weight, income and age.

There are some variables whose values are not divisible or expressible into fractions and have a limited number of distinct values. That variable is called discontinuous variable and other names of those variables are categorical variables or discrete variables. Examples of these variables are the grading scheme of any university. A student can get A, B, C, D or F grade only.

There are no values between A & B. This grading scheme is called discontinuous variable. Other Examples are Gender (Male, Female), Employment status (Unemployed, Self-Business, Employee, Student) etc.

Sir plz explain integrative review?

Integrate means to make into a whole by bringing all parts together. Integrative review summarizes the maximum past literature up to the current point of time toprovide a comprehensive understanding of a particular phenomenon. Integrative reviews are mostly applicable for policy initiatives and theory development. Furthermore, all the types of reviews are linked with each other and researcher may use more than one type simultaneously.

Sir can you please define operational definition and how we use it in research give me an example.

Operational definition is working definition in which you make your abstract concepts more specific so that they can be measured. Let’s take an example of motivation. Operationally motivation for a job can be defined through extrinsic and intrinsic factors of motivation. Extrinsic factors include salary and other monetary benefits, intrinsic factors include pleasure, development opportunities and etc. that can motivate employee to perform his job. The mentioned factors are basically the dimensions of motivation. Elements are derived from dimensions that are more specific and measureable in nature.

Sir how researcher use dictionary definitions in their research because it gives us synonyms and it is used for general communication kindly define it & give me an example so my concept will clear.

The main purpose of dictionary definition of a concept is to understand what concept is all about in literal terms. For example there are many synonyms of concept ‘motivation’ such as inspiration, enthusiasm, a drive and etc. but while doing a research you not only need to give synonyms rather have to provide formal literal definition.

Theoretically motivation is defined as; “Motivation is the word derived from the word ’motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to take actions in order to accomplish the goals.

AOA sir What is dependent variables and independent variables with suitable example..

Those variables that influence others and are not influenced by others are called independent variable. It is a variable that stands alone and isn’t changed by the other variables you are trying to measure.  For example, pay scale of employees affects the job satisfaction of the employees. Here you can very well distinguish between independent and dependent variable. As pay scale is affecting job satisfaction, so pay scale is an independent variable and job satisfaction is a dependent variable as it is being influenced by pay scale.

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