Dear sir,
Please define Appendix?
Appendix is a supplementary material at the end of a book, article, document, or other text, usually consisting of an explanatory, statistical, or bibliographic material.
Sir what is meant by deviants and explain involvement with deviants.
In field research, deviant means those people who are involved in illegal activities. Involvement with deviants refers to how would researcher get involve and build rapport, trust with the deviants.
Please focus specification of the setting and are theoretical sampling.
The statement written by you refers to researcher suggesting to focus on only aspects which are of interest to the study. By theoretical sampling we mean the process of choosing new research sites or cases to compare with ones that have already been studied.
Please explain enter the field adopt a social role learn the ropes and get along with members.
It means that while conducting the field research, the researcher has to adopt the culture and role of the people he is observing. In short, do as the romans do.
Please explain select site and gain access.
It means select the area for the field research and go and do field research there.
Please explain repare yourself read the literature and defocus.
All the terms written by you is the first step in conducting field research. It means to get ready for field research by reading literature to know what already has been done in the topic of your research. You are guided to kindly read my previous post in this regards and get complete knowledge regarding to literature review.
What is cluster sampling?
In cluster sampling, first population is divided into different clusters then with random sampling procedure clusters are selected and data is taken from clusters rather than individuals.
For example; a researcher needs to select a sample of 200 households in a particular city for in-home interviews. If the researcher selects a sample of 200 households via simple random sampling, they will be scattered across the city. Cluster sampling might be implemented in this situation by selecting 20 residential blocks in the city and randomly choosing 10 households on each block to interview.
Please explain constructing percentage table with example.
Constructing percentage table means to develop a percentage table. For example you want to know how many students have passed research methods course in previous semester. Assume you have hypothetical data of 1000 students with four categories i.e. “excellent”, “average”, “below average” and “Fail”. As per data, 500 students passed the course excellently, 250 students lie in average category, 200 students lie in below average category and 50 students failed the course. In order to construct a percentage table you have to draw percentages of each category. You can construct a percentage table in such a way;
Student performance in Research Methods course |
||
Passing criteria | Frequency | Percentage |
Excellent | 500 | 500/1000*100=50 |
Average | 250 | 25 |
Below average | 200 | 20 |
Fail | 50 | 5 |
Total | 1000 | 100 |
Pleae explain bivariate table with example.
Bivariate tables are one that presents the joint distribution of two variables. Let’s take an example: suppose in a survey, the data is collected form the respondents in order to find out that customers’ choice of cellular phone of three brands; A, B, C; is dependent upon certain features i.e. battery time, design, price, durability. Here 3 brands is one variable; whereas, features is the second one.
Following presents the bivariate table:
Features |
A |
B |
C |
Total |
Battery time | 24 | 10 | 15 | 49 |
Design | 29 | 18 | 12 | 59 |
Price | 18 | 21 | 18 | 57 |
Durability | 20 | 9 | 13 | 42 |
Total | 91 | 58 | 58 |
207 |
Please explain scoring and score index with illustration because I could not understand from handout and worried about it.
Scoring means that each response by an individual is given a value. For example in Likert scale value of 1 to 5 is given to responses from strongly disagree to strongly agree respectively. For score index, on each statement of the scale respondent could get a minimum score of 1 and a maximum score of 5, on 10 statements a respondent could get a minimum score of (10 X 1=10) and a maximum score of (10 X 5=50). So in this way score index of a scale ranges from 10 to 50.
Please explain weighting with example.
Weight means that certain value is assigned to items to measure the total score of an index. Take an example of assigning equal weight i.e. each item is assigned equal value. If each item is assigned a weight of 2, then every item is multiplied by 2 and after this total sum is attained by adding all weighted score.
Please explain unidimensionality with example.
Unidimensionality means that all the items of a scale or index measure the same concept. For example; motivation is a concept, but in order to measure motivation of an individual, there are three dimensions included; job loyalty, interest in work, acceptance of responsibility. All these three dimensions measure the single concept motivation; therefore; unidimensionality exists there.
Please explain indexes and scales with illustration.
All scales are indices, but not all indexes are scales. In order to be precise a scale is a measure of the intensity of an attitude or emotion. Scales are usually formed at ordinal level of data; most of the times level of agreement and disagreement is measured with the help of a scale. Whereas; an index is a measure in which a researcher adds several indicators of a construct into a single score. The total score is usually a sum of multiple indicators. Indexes are often measured at the interval or ratio level.
Clear distinction of scale and index can be done with the help of example of exams. The exam given to measure the competence of a student can be thought of a scale, but student’s GPA can be taken as an index because it is a combination of a number of separate, independent marks obtained in different subjects.
Sir please explain summative score with example.
Summative score refers to aggregate score of two or more items of questionnaire in order to form a new variable. For example there are 4 items in a questionnaire related to job satisfaction, for finding out the total job satisfaction; the values of all those four items will be added together. The aggregate sum which is called summative score will provide us with total job satisfaction.
Sir please explain the word “naïve” in detail.
Literal meaning of naïve is inexperienced or immature. For getting to know its pronunciation and how it is written, you are advised to visit following link:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/naive
how we make table of random sample? what is its importance and for what sampling it is used?
Random number tables are created by random number generator using computational or physical device. It is used in simple random sampling, sampling frame is made and unique number is given to each item. Number is selected the by picking number from random number table, and then item which is allocated the same number is selected. Computer software for random sampling is suitable for large populations. It is important as it helps to select sample without any bias.
What is meant by multivariate sample.
The term multivariate sample is ambiguous. Kindly mention the source from where you read that term. However, in the context of research, multivariate analysis is the term mostly used. Multivariate analysis is based on the statistical principle of multivariate statistics, which involves observation and analysis of more than one statistical outcome variable at a time.