Dear Sir, Please explain what is citation in literature review in Research MBA Projects?
Citation refers to the rules established for mentioning sources used in the text of a research paper. Common style for citation and referencing is APA- American Psychological Association. It requires both in-text citations (mentioning sources used within the text) and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa.
Hope this clarifies your confusion. For the convenience of students, a document is uploaded in download section of VULMS regarding APA citation and referencing, kindly check your LMS.
Dear Mian Aamir, Assalam o alaikum . Please tell me the meaning of positivist in your own wods.
Positivist approach to research is based on observation and re-observation until one gets definite and positive about his/her findings. Positivist approach to research means knowledge gained after several verificationsor experiments rather based on intuitions. The scientific method is based on positivist approach. For example in the field of medicine if scientist discovers a treatment he first tests it on animals many times to verify the results then recommends to apply on human body.
Dear Sir, in literature review how we can add references and please explain what is APA style?
References include only work cited (mentioned within the text), and they are added at the end of the text. The common format to cite the data and references used is APA – American Psychological Association. APA citation style refers to the rules established by the American Psychological Association for mentioning sources used in the text of a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations (mentioning sources used within the text) and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa. Whereas, references usually come at the end of a text (essay or research report) and should contain only those works mentioned within the text.
Hope this clarifies your confusion. For the convenience of students, a document is uploaded in download section of VULMS regarding APA citation and referencing.
Kindly explain null hypothesis with a simple example as i am unable to understand it. Sadaf
Null hypothesis is used for testing the hypothesis formulated by the researcher. It is presumed to be true until statistical evidence nullifies it for an alternative hypothesis. Null hypothesis simply states that there is no relationship between the variables or the two variables are independent of each other. For example, if we want to test whether motivation is related to employees performance, then the null hypothesis will be as:
H0: There is no relationship between motivation and employees performance.
We test our hypothesis indirectly by testing the null hypothesis. If the proposed hypothesis has any credibility then the research data should reject the null hypothesis. Rejection of the null hypothesis leads to the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis.
Dear Sadaf. for more detail and clarification you can read my previous lecture:– Null hypothesis
Q: What is meant by abstract level and empirical realities?
Q: what is meant by nuclear families?
Abstraction is basically considering something as a general idea or a characteristic, apart from the concrete reality; something that is visionary or unrealistic. For the purpose of identification of a reality, we try to give a name to it. Names are basically constructs and these constructs are the concepts. These concepts are the mental image of the reality – either physical or non-physical. Empirical reality is something that is observable through our senses.
Nuclear family is the term used to define the family group that is comprised of father, mother and children’s only. This is in contrast to the joint family system.
Dear Sana. for more detail and clarification you can read my previous lecture:- Abstract and concept
Assalam-o-Alaikum Sir, What is meant by deductive route and inductive route?
In research, there are usually two broad methods of reasoning as deductive and inductive approaches. Deductive reasoning moves from more general to more specific. This approach is used to test the theory. Researchers, deduce meaning from the observed theories. Simple example of deductive is: all men are mortal; Ali is a man; Ali is mortal.
On the other hand, Inductive reasoning moves from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. This approach is used to develop a theory. Simple example of inductive is: Ali is mortal; Ali is a man; all men are mortal.
I hope it is clear to you now but still if you have any ambiguity feel free to ask at email@example.com