Dear Sir Mian Aamir kindly explain Quasi experimental designs?
Experimental designs are divided into different designs and one of them is Quasi experimental design types.
Quasi experimental design types
This design is further divided into three types; one-shot case study design, one group pretest-posttest design and two groups posttest-only design. The one-shot case study design has only one group, a treatment, and a posttest. One group pretest-posttest design has one group, a pretest, a treatment, and a posttest. It lacks a control group and random assignment. Two Groups Posttest-only Design has two groups, a random assignment of subjects, a posttest, and a treatment.
Respected Sir Explain difference between bibliography and referencing in simple words ?
Bibliography for Project
A reference list is the subset of bibliography. In bibliography researcher lists down all the woks that are relevant to the research topic arranged in alphabetical order of the last names of authors, whereas in reference list research only lists down the work which is cited in literature survey and elsewhere in the report.
Dear Sir kindly explain Unit of analysis and Cluster sampling briefly with examples?
Unit of analysis statistics refers to the subject or entity that is being analyzed for study. Research question determines the unit of analysis in any research. Unit of analysis can be; individual, dyad, group and organization.
Unit of analysis example
For example, if your research is about motivation level of employees then your unit of analysis will be ‘individual’. If you want to study the two person interaction e.g. husband and wife then your unit of analysis will be ‘dyad’. If you want to study the interaction of more than 2 persons then your unit of analysis will be ‘group’. If you want to compare the organizations’ productivity then your unit of analysis will be ‘organization’.
Cluster sampling is the type of probability sampling and it used when population is heterogeneous. The population is first divided into groups and groups are called as clusters. These clusters or groups have heterogeneity within groups but homogeneity among group. For example researcher needs the data from textile industry network overall in Pakistan. He can make groups of textile firms with respect to province. Doing so, the clusters have homogeneity among groups as all are textile firms but heterogeneity within each other as firms may differ with respect to geographical location, productivity, market share and etc.
Asslam o Alikum! Can you tell the defference between Historical-comparative research and Distinct Historical-comparative research/approach? Please explain this in simple words. Also i want to know Synthesizing?
The term which is confusing you is “distinct”. In the query you asked, there is not any difference between the two terms. Distinct is just an adjective which is explaining the noun i.e. historical comparative research.
Whereas, synthesizing is a step in historical comparative research after the organization of evidences. After the organization of evidences, the information might be present in bits and pieces, so the task of the researcher is to use his/her own rationale to build in the conceptual model. This step also involves the refinement of concepts. If any pattern is found then with the synthesizing specific evidences are linked with an abstract model. Solution to the problem can also be found with this step.
Asslam o Alikum! Can you explain Deception and difference between overt and covert? Please explain the word Naive? Please explain these in simple words. Please send your reply at my email firstname.lastname@example.org too.
If while getting the responses from the respondents, they are not told about the actual purpose of the study or only partial purpose is told then it comes under the category of deception.
As there are two types of observations. One is overt and the other is covert. An overt observation is when researcher is open and confirms that all the participants under study know the intentions and purpose of the study. Whereas, covert observation refers to concealing the true purpose of the study. Participants don’t know that they are being observed or they are not told the truth.
Kindly check your mentioned email for detail reply.
Sir please tell what techniques should be used by a moderator in FGD?
Moderator is person in FGD who only moderates the discussion without leading it. He should not act as an expert rather only stimulates the discussion. He should first introduce the topic to the members as well as members to each other. Make possible arrangements that respondents find comfort level while giving their point of view. He should encourage the discussion and ensure the participation and involvement of every participant. He should control the discussion as well as timing of discussion so that participants don’t go beyond the topic. In the end he should summarize what has been discussed by the participants taking their agreement or disagreement and thank them in respectful manner.
Asalam u alikum Sir please Discuss the types of research?
Research is divided in many types with respect to certain dimension. For example, with respect to ‘purpose’ research is divided in to 3 types; exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. With respect to ‘usage’ research is divided into two types; Basic and applied research. With respect to ‘time’ dimension research is divided into two types; cross sectional and longitudinal. With respect to ‘methodology’ research broadly is divided into two types; qualitative and quantitative research.
Respective teacher,waht is stratified sampling?
Stratified sampling is a two stage step. In first step heterogeneous groups are divided into homogeneous groups. These strata are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. From each stratum an item is selected by using simple random sampling.
An item by using simple random sampling can be done in two ways:
Proportionate sampling: sample size is proportionate to the size of population in each stratum.
Disproportionate sampling: sample size is not proportionate to the size of population in each stratum.
In the following example total population is 1000. A total sample of 200 is to be extracted.
For proportionate sampling sample will be extracted from each stratum according to size of strata, for this 1000 will be divided by 200 i.e. 1000/200=5. Each stratum will then be divided by factor “5”
Same example is taken for disproportionate sampling, but sample will not be taken proportionately.
The choice of selecting proportionate vs. disproportionate sampling depends on the population. If a stratum is very small and proportional taking of items from stratum will not make sample representative then its better to take disproportionate sampling.
Dear Sir Assalm o Alikum In the topic scoring and score index, the scoring of positive and negative statement is very confusing. Please elaborate it with an example.Thanks
Whenever questionnaire is developed, it may consist of all positive statement and sometime it may comprised of few negative questions along with positive statements to make it more reliable and for getting the true and relevant data from the respondents.
Suppose questions of Organizational commitment are as follows by using likert scale.
Strongly Agree =5
Strongly Disagree =1
First three questions are positive statements but last one statement is negative in this way who will mark SA for fist three, definitely he/she will mark SD for the last question.
|I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization||SD||D||N||A||SA|
|I enjoy discussing my organization with people outside of it||SD||D||N||A||SA|
|I really feel as if this organization’s problems are my own||SD||D||N||A||SA|
|I think I could easily become as attached to another organization as I am to this one||SD||D||N||A||SA|
For the first 3 questions, the score would be:
Strongly Agree =5
Strongly Disagree =1
For the last questions which is negative statement, you have to flip the old values upside down to make sense, so the new values would be:
Strongly Agree = old value=5, new value=1
Agree = old value =4, new=2
Undecided = old value = 3, new=3
Disagree = old value= 2, new=4
Strongly Disagree =old value = 1, new=5
In this way researcher enters the score in excel sheet for further analysis. Hope it would help to remove your confusion.
Dear Mian Saheb. Greetings:- Please clear my concept by answering below questions.
- What are Varieties and Non-Reactive Observations?
- What is the difference between Histoy effect and Mechanical loss??
- What is the difference between Historical and Comparative research??
In Non-reactive research, subjects are unaware they are being studied. It is mostly used naturalistic settings. It has varieties of indirect ways to measures behaviors like Physical Traces, Archives, content analysis etc. Non-Reactive research has been discussed in video lecture#36. You are advised to must watch that lecture for good understanding.
Any specific event in the external environment occurring between the first and second measurement that is beyond the control of the experimenter and that affects the validity of an experiment will be considered as History affect. For example Advertisement of a particular product (mineral water) and its sale is affected by an event in the society (contamination of drinking water). But when a problem may be experienced due to equipment failure used during the measurement will be knows as mechanical loss. It may affect the validity of the experiment and results’ credibility. For example, in an experiment if the subjects are told that their behavior is being videotaped, and during the experiment the video equipment failed to work for some subjects, then the validity of the results could become doubtful.
It seems that you have asked about Historical comparative research . Historical comparative research is a collection of techniques and approaches that examines historical events in order to create explanations that are valid beyond a particular time and place, either by direct comparison to other historical events, theory building, or reference to the present day. Generally, it involves comparisons of social processes across times and places. This form of research may use any of several theoretical orientations. It is distinguished by the types of questions it asks, not the theoretical framework it employs.
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