Assalamualikum sir, can I have an easy definition of extraneous definition please? with example .shajia tehreem
I am glad to see this question. Understanding this concept is very important from research point of view. Let`s understand the concept of Extraneous variable with an example. Suppose you are doing a research on the effect of salary increase and leadership style on job satisfaction. Now think for a while, there are many many other factors that you are not considering like relationship of supervisors with subordinates, employees commitment, job security and turnover intentions etc.
If somebody asks you that why you are not considering all these factors. Your rational answer should be, it is nearly impossible to cater all these variables in one study. And your answer is correct. So, exogenous variables are those variables which may affect the job satisfaction but you are not considering for your study. Hopefully the concept is clear.
AOA,Sir how are you?Sir please explain the Proposition with example.
Nice to find your query. In order to understand proposition and Research Proposal , we need to first clear that there are broadly two kinds of researches; one is quantitative and other one is qualitative. Both have different methodologies for inquiring about any phenomenon.
Quantitative technique use previous literature and on the basis of this literature review, develop a model and hypothesis which are then tested for acceptance or rejection. On the other hand, qualitative technique mostly used relatively less literature and then conducts the study. The result of that study will be “Proposition/s”. So the end result of qualitative study is a proposition statement which can be tested afterword’s by conducting a quantitative study.
For example: If someone conducts a qualitative research on “Team`s Performance”. The end result/proposition can be:
Double loop learning and experiential resources will pave paths for knowledge creation which will lead towards increased team`s performance.
Now this proposition can be tested for its generalizability by conducting quantitative research. Hopefully, you have understood the concept.
Dear Sir,Please explain the term longitudinal research and cross-sectional research in simple way.
Muhammad Hayat Khan
Dear Hayat Khan
Cross sectional and longitudinal research are types of research with respect to time dimension. In cross sectional research data is collected just once i.e. at one point in time whereas, in longitudinal research data is collected more than one time after specific time period. Cross sectional research does not measure the changes and development in a certain phenomenon while major objective of longitudinal research is to measure changes. In Research Proposal For example, a researcher studies behavior of students of 7th standard in a school and he collects data just once. Such type of study is cross sectional. On the other hand if researcher studies behavior of same students while they are in 10th standard and analyze the difference in behavior then it will be longitudinal study.
Do we consider the meaning of “Abstract” as invisible for objects other imagery of objects which exists in our conscious at the time of thinking ? do we need to relate them with actions?and what should we do for social concepts for example morale,motivation,derive,curiosity. how can we memories these?another confusion is this that when individuals learn a concept about an object which later known as wrong.after it every time they remind the former and then later.
Nice to find your queries. It is notable thing that word “Abstract” has many meanings depending upon the contextual situations. In research articles, this word has been used to indicate a summarize paragraph of the whole article. The purpose is to provide a crux to the readers.
If you want to know the role of “Abstract” or “Abstraction” in idea generation/theory building then It has different meaning. You are somehow correct in understanding “Abstract” as imagination of any phenomenon or deep observation about some relations.
Talking about the social concepts, it’s a separate story which mostly related with human psychology. Areas relating to “Learning and Unlearning” would be included in it. This course will not cover these concepts. But if you have something to learn about it. You may contact through course email. I will try to help you.
Sir uses of research are catagarised into two subheadings basic & aplied, but if i am doing an research which is neither basic nor applied, can i give it an other name like general research, for instance if i am doing research just on social problems of Pakistan, not on reasons for them.
We divide the research into its types depending upon its purpose, use, or time dimension. You have to be clear about your research objective that whether you want to find out just the social problems of Pakistan or the objective is something different. Please be little specific so that your query can be entertained.
I find it difficult to understand “impact assessment research”. Please define it with an easy example.
Impact assessment research is conducted to find out the impact of an action/change/project on environment/behaviors/performance. This research can be conducted in natural sciences like impact of medicine on human body/impact of dams on environment etc. Such researches can also be conducted in social sciences like impact of organizational change on culture/behaviors or impact of salary increase on performance.
In social sciences, it can also be called as experimental design research.
AOA,Sir how are you?Sir please can you tell me some details about cross sectional research?