But you may require a specific information from the article like, how the author defines the variables? or what research methodology is used in the article? or what statistical analysis are used? or how theoretical model is build? For answering such an answer, you may directly go to the relevant part of the article.
Thanks for replied, for my previous queries ; but still i have an ambiguity about validity topic as u have mentioned “Validity is the ability of an instrument to measure what it is supposed to measure. While developing the measuring instrument for the study it is important to ensure its validity. There are three major types of validity; 1) content validity, 2) criterion-related validity, and 3) construct validity” . in my sense i understood validity means the expiry of any substance or living /non living thing. please explain it …?
Validity does not mean expiry of any substance or living/ non-living thing. Validity is the ability of instrument to measure exactly what it is intended or expected to measure. For example, weighing machine will be valid if it really measures weight not temperature. Another example is of questionnaire that researcher develops for measuring job satisfaction it should measure job satisfaction not motivation.
Construct validity measures validity of multiple indicators. For example, in order to measure job satisfaction you make questionnaire on multiple dimensions such as working conditions, interaction with co-workers/managers, work itself, remuneration, self-growth, promotion, praise & recognition, organizational policy and job security. Construct validity ensures that all the dimensions operate in consistent manner. Construct validity basically is measured by convergent validity or discriminant validity.
Convergent validity ensures that all the similar dimensions are associated with one another. In above mentioned dimensions; promotion and praise & recognition both should score high in order to ensure convergent validity. If one scores high and second scores low then it lack convergent validity because similar dimensions are supposed to give similar results.
On the other hand discriminant validity ensures that concepts that are not similar should not give similar results. For example, you make questionnaire on extravert and introvert. You put 10 statements of introvert and 10 of extrovert. Scores of both concepts should be opposite in order to ensure discriminant validity.
Content validity is the type of validity which ensures that measurement tool represents the contents of concept or items are sufficient enough to measure particular variable. If you make questionnaire on motivation then content validity ensures that all the items of questionnaire satisfy the content (dimensions and elements) of motivation. Face validity is the type of content validity which ensures that items/questions in any questionnaire by face looks like they measure the certain concept. For example you want to take test of English. If questions asked in test are of mathematics then test lacks face validity.
I hope it is clear to you now.
The concept of ethics is all about acknowledging what is right or wrong while conducting the research. It guides the researcher about how they have to perform in a particular situation. It requires personal integrity from the researcher.
Deception is to intentionally mislead the respondents by a false statement or by persuading them incorrectly. For example, if you are collecting the data from the employees of an organization. You guaranteed them that their confidentiality will be maintained by you being a researcher. But afterwards you reveal the collected information then this will be a case of deception. Some, scholars are of the view that deception should never occur, but others suggest the reasons for deception.
Debriefing is basically an explanation of any deception. In any situation where the respondents are intentionally deceived, they must be debriefed once the research is completed. Whereas, informed consent is an important part of research process. It includes a signed form notifying the types of limits that must be obtained. However in some research cases oral consent is also sufficient. Respondents must be truly informed about the potential subject understudy, so that they can decide whether or not to participate in the research. The respondents must freely give their consent without any coercion and it must be based on a clear understanding of what participation involves.
In research, usually three parties are involved; the researcher, the sponsoring client (user), and the respondent (subject). The selection of respondents and sponsoring clients depends upon the research question or topic of the research. Each party expects certain rights and feels certain obligations towards the other parties.
Validity is the ability of an instrument to measure what it is supposed to measure. While developing the measuring instrument for the study it is important to ensure its validity. There are three major types of validity; 1) content validity, 2) criterion-related validity, and 3) construct validity.