Dare to ask Mian Aamir all about VU Final Project Part 4

Dare to ask Mian Aamir all about VU Final Project Part 4

Question 1

Dear Sir
Thansk for your cooperation
As per your discussion
research conducted to know why pollution is increasing day by day will be exploratory research, or to know why employees of a company are showing high absenteeism will be exploratory research in VU Final Project.

Above the two examples are exploratory and explanatory and why it is not called descriptive research because it is describe the statements
So Sir can it is called descriptive research or not plz explain

Sir Basic research is called exploratory,descriptive and explanatory. plz explain how
why applied research is called descriptive plz explain how

Action research is the power to do the research
Impact assessment is estimate the change after plan
Evaluation is did it work proper and desire results
Is it right Sir plz help me for better understanding
Thanks

Replied by Mian Aamir

What is actual question? any way some points which i noted while study your question.

Research conducted to know why pollution is increasing day by day and why employees of company are showing high absenteeism are examples of explanatory research. These two are not descriptive research because it is not describing the situation rather it is explaining situation with the question of why i.e. why things are the way they are. It could be descriptive if we research how/where pollution is increasing.

Basic research can be exploratory, descriptive or explanatory. Applied research is mostly a descriptive research; it is not that it cannot be exploratory or descriptive. Applied research, too, can build new knowledge.

Applied research is categorized in three classes; those who are being studied also participate in research process, such study, is called as Action Research because the goal is to improve the conditions of research participants. Impact Assessment is the research in which researcher estimates likely consequences of planned activity. Evaluation Research measures the effectiveness of research conducted.

Hope it will enhance your understanding regrding to VU Final Project..If still feeling any issue, you are more then welcome to contact us again at qundeel.com@gmail.com

Question 2

Please tell me what is the major difference of Exploratory research and descriptive research in VU Final Project..Kindly explain it in easy wording.

Replied by Mian Aamir

Dear student,

Exploratory research is all about exploring new topic or it could be initial research to clarify the nature of problem, whereas descriptive research gives description or specific details of explored things. Descriptive research describes characteristics of certain situation. For example, being a teacher of a class, you explored that male and female students gave major different result in annual examination. After exploring you would describe how male and female students gave different result.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.If still feeling any issue regarding to VU Final Project, you are more then welcome to contact us again at qundeel.com@gmail.com.

Question 3

Dear Sir
thanks for your cooperation

As per your discussion related to verifiable it is not related to realities and it is just idea through mind like we observe the students in the class and its is also observe and it is not related to experiment
Is it right Sir ?
Generalization is done after the research and its mean research through experiments and after it the results will confirm and its apply to all
Is it right Sir about the concept
Plz help because i still confuse
Thanks

Replied by Mian Aamir

Dear student,

Dictionary meaning of verify is to determine the truth by investigation. Verifiable is characteristic of scientific method of research which means that observation made by researcher must be confirmed or refuted by him or other researchers before drawing some conclusion. Researcher confirms or refutes observation by using senses. We verify observation to have confidence on our observation.

Dictionary meaning of generalization is statement having general application. Generalizability is one of the characteristics of scientific method it is not any step to do in research. It means findings of your research should have general implication. However some researches are applied i.e. solution to specific problem.

These are characteristics of scientific method that researcher should keep in mind to make research scientific i.e. organized and systematic.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.If still feeling any issue regarding to VU Final Project, you are more then welcome to contact us again at qundeel.com@gmail.com.

 

Question 4

R/Sir,
No concept is clear about “Avoid leading question & Avoid loaded question in VU Final Project.”. Please shortly brief in this regard with an example.
Thanks.

Replied by Mian Aamir

Dear student,

We appreciate that you asked.

“Leading question” means question that leads respondent for desired answer. Researcher should make such questions that measure respondents own response rather guide them for certain answer. For example, you don’t like your boss, do you? Such question means that researcher wants respondent to answer that he/she does not like his/her boss. Such questions should be avoided while designing a questionnaire.

“Loaded question” means challenging, embarrassing and emotionally charged questions that provoke respondent emotionally. Researchers are advised to avoid loaded questions for example, should beggars discouraged for begging? Such questions may provoke respondents to answer in favor or against beggars in overwhelming way.

 Hope it will enhance your learning.

Question 5

What are Guidelines for Questionnaire Design in VU Final Project.

Replied by Mian Aamir

Guidelines for Questionnaire design are the rules that should be followed while designing a questionnaire. It is not necessary that every respondent will understand the questions in the same sense in which it has been written. So these guidelines help in increasing the chances that the responded will understand the question in the intended sense.

 

These guidelines include that the questions should be relevant to the topic, they should collect reliable and valid information. Use of specific words is recommended. Double barreled questions which ask about two things in the same question should be avoided. Questions should not lead the respondent towards the desired answers. Questions which are socially challenging or emotionally stimulating should not be asked directly. Burdensome questions challenge the respondents’ memory, they include reminding incidents of far past so they should be avoided. Questions should follow a sequence. Questions should be arranged in such a way that simple and general questions that build respondents’ interest be placed first. Filter questions should be used which let the respondent move directly to the questions that he/she may answer. The layout of the questionnaire should be appealing.

 Hope it will enhance your learning.

Question 6

Dear Sir

Plz explain in simple words
Snowball sampling is referral or representational sampling why and how it is call referral

it is network because it pick up additional information that is make the network it understand but how it is referral or reputational in VU Final Project.

Thanks

Replied by Mian Aamir

This sampling technique is used with rare or unknown population. The researcher initially finds few respondents who further refer prospective respondents from their own network. That is why it is also called referral sampling. In this way the researcher ends up having the required number of elements in the sample.

 I hope it is now clear to you that why snowball sampling is called referral sampling.

 Hope it will enhance your learning.

Question 7

Dear Sir
plz explain in simple words for understanding and better to explain according to our level Sir plz

Sir Probability is between 0 to 1 Plz explain non probability sampling in simple words

Sir probability is sampling has nonzero what is mean Sir plz help. it  mean is sequence number from 1 to onward
plz explain with simple words

Thanks

Replied by Mian Aamir

Probabilities are given a value between 0 and 1 (0 means will not occur and 1 means will occur). If the probability of an event is higher, the more certain we are that the event will occur.

Non-Probability sampling is such a sampling process in which probability of all the elements of a population, to be selected as a sample, is not same. Here the probability of any particular element of the population being chosen is unknown.

Probability sampling is such a sampling process in which probability of all the elements of a population, to be selected as a sample, is same. Here every element of the population has probability of selection, which means that every element has non-zero probability of selection.

I hope it is now clear to you.

Question 8

respected sir, plz explain what is deception and informed consent with example

Replied by Mian Aamir

Deception is basically being dishonest or trickery. In research Deception occurs when people who are involved in research are not informed of true explanation of research due to certain reasons. For example, you wanted to check the effects of certain radiation on people and gathered them in a room with the aim to discuss economic crisis. You have, in fact, gathered them in a room with hidden aim which falls in deception. Those who believe that there should be deception give some reasons such as; to prevent biasing the respondents before the survey or experiment.

Informed consent means to have permission of respondents before proceeding with your study. It enables researcher to know that respondent is fully informed what he is participating in. for example, when dealing with children; it is wise to have informed consent from parent.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.

Question 9

sir plz explain ope rationalization with example and difference between quantitative and qualitative.

Replied by Mian Aamir

Dear student

Very good question. Operationalization is working definition of a concept or construct that makes it empirical or measurable. Operationalization is the process of linking theoretical definition of a concept with empirical measures. Empirical measures means to concretely measure specific variable. For example, in order to measure weight you need weighing machine but there are certain variables that cannot be measured directly, such as, happiness. In order to measure happiness you need to create a tool which can be done by operationally define it. Operationalization includes dimension and elements of a concept. Dimension of happiness can be; emotional stability, financial stability, physical fitness, intellectual challenge and spiritual belief. From each dimension, researcher develops elements that can measure happiness. Elements of emotional stability can be; love with parents, love with siblings, love with spouse, and love with friends.  Elements of financial stability can be; earning, receiving scholarships, loans with low interest and financial background. Elements of physical fitness can be health, sharp mind and etc. On each element, researcher makes number of questions, which is called as items that can measure happiness. That is how operationalization is done.

The major difference between qualitative and quantitative is ,former deals with symbols, perceptions and later deals with numbers.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.

 

Question 10

Dear Sir
plz explain in simple words

Content validity
Concurrent validity
Convergent validity

Thanks

Replied by Mian Aamir

Dear student,

Content Validity refers that measure includes adequate and representative set of items that cover the concept. In simple words it measures whether measurement tool represents the contents of concept i.e. dimensions and elements, or identified items are sufficient to measure particular variable. If researcher develops question on each dimension and element then it ensures content validity.

Concurrent validitymeans when a scale differentiates individual who are known to be different should score differently on the instrumente.g. a test is designed for a particular subject to check the differences among students, we know we have different mental level students in class so, if difference occurs in results at the moment then instrument has concurrent validity.

Convergent Validity means that multiple measures of the same construct hang together or operate in similar ways e.g. we need to hire a person of MBA level, a person says he has done MBA, then we ask for his degree, then we further ask some questions of MBA level to get assured. If indicators converge with each other then we say it as convergent validity.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.

 

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