Project Report on Declining Education Standards in Pakistan (Approved)

Project Report on Declining Education Standards in Pakistan

 

Sr.
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Parts of Report

Marks

Obtained
marks

1

Introduction and Problem Statement

20

18

2

Literature Review

20

17

3

Theoretical Framework & Research Design

20

20

4

Analysis and Findings

20

18

5

Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations

20

19

 Total

100

92

        NAME:                                                                                          AAMIR IQBAL ANJUM

         ID                                                                                                  MC060400135

         BATCH:                                                                                       (MBA)  (Fall 2006)

Virtual University of Pakistan, Defense Road Off Raiwind Road, Lahore

Introduction of the Student

Last Degree Obtained:-            B.A (Punjab University Lahore)

Acknowledgment

 First I bow my head before Almighty Allah Who has enabled me to write on this assignment. I am also indebted to my respected instructor sta630 whose guidance encouraged me in writing this project  I am also thankful to my friends who provided me the help and suggestions when and where needed.

Dedicated

I dedicated my Project

                            To My Parents, and My Elder Brother,  Whom Prayers always follow me.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The purpose of this Research to find out the real fact, which leads to Declining Education Standard in Pakistan. In fact the purpose of my research to find out education standard level in Pakistan.  Why the Education standard is is low. The non-probability sampling techniques were used to create the sample 35 respondents located in the Punjab area. In this research the data was collected through structured making questionnaires. The important facts during my research are under below:-

In my research 37 female and 63% are male respondents. Therefore majority of sampling consist of male respondents. In the other hand Average age of respondents is approximately 23 years. Majority of respondents are graduate or post graduated educated.

 

Respondent as teacher almost 25% Teachers currently teaches to the students in the English Medium, and In the Urdu Medium and almost 34 percent, and Both Urdu and English medium is 40% percent.  So majority of Teachers currently teaches to the students in Both English and Urdu Medium.

According to Teacher respondent 31% of 35 teachers told me abut Declining Education standard in Pakistan due to money or income, 25% teacher think that it is due to Teacher method, 17% Teachers give their views that it is due to Management and supervision.  And 20% Percent Teachers feels that it is due to Tuition system, and almost 5 % teachers tell it is due to other reason.

In to other hand the Student respondent consists on almost 74 percent male and 25% are female. So majority of Respondent consist on male. Average of age of students is approximately 10-15 year. Majority of the students are in the Higher Level educated. And primary level. 37% students are getting education in Urdu medium and English medium. 28% students are getting education in English Medium and almost 34% percent students in Urdu.

According to Students views about declining education standard in Pakistan. 37 percent out of 35 students feels that it is due to Tuition system matters, 28% students feels it is due to money, 14 percent students views that it is due to teaching method, 8 % people believes that it is due to management and supervision   and other 11 percent think it is due to other reason.

 Introduction Declining Education Standards in Pakistan

The declining education standard at different tiers, as reflected in low Examination result, particularly at the Intermediate/Degree levels is a matter of great national concern. The reports of the Federal/Provincial Public Service Commissions released from time to time show poor performance of candidates competing for various job. That is an indicator of a fall in the education standard at the higher level.  As for colleges even if the pass percentage in Humanities ad science groups were to maintain a static trend, with little variations here and there during a given period, it could not be taken as a satisfactory measure when an allowance to quality and other factors is given.  A better measure is to compare our educational products with those in the western countries in terms of quality and knowledge at different levels.

 If that criterion were applied then our education system would be rated operating in a low key, as it does not turn out educational products capable of meeting the scientific and Technological challenges of the present complex age. It thus calls for adopting remedial measures of diverse nature to improve the standard and quality of education. If we look at 1979, we can study that a government commission reviewed the consequences of nationalization and concluded that in view of the poor participation rates at all levels of education, public sector could no longer to the country’s sole provider of education.  In current 1997 for instance, three private institutions were established in 2001 eleven new private institutions were opened and in 2002 total of 29 private sector institutions were established.

But we can see that after all these achievements in education, Pakistan could not get Standard in Education as we compare to the foreign countries. So after these 2323achievements Pakistan is still have very poor Education system. Education has never been Pakistan strong point.  We may now examine why education has failed to contribute to non achievement of ideological aims in particular.  It is matter of common observation that owing to the impact of economic values, resting on self interest, education has failed to promote ideological values in the society. The politico-economic system works in such as values in the society.  So Education policies have failed to bring about a shift from general technical and vocational education. There is already a glut of arts/science graduates, and more additions re being made to the backlog of the unemployed.

Thesituation is serious and needs to the tackled on war footing for resolving the problem of the unemployed. Education has failed to achieve quality reasons for which have been spelled out in the write-up captioned “falling education standards” which need not be repeated here. Following are the reasons of why the educational Standard Pakistan reduce

  1. Money or income
  2. Management and machinery problem
  3. Teaching method
  4. Tuition system
  5. Lack of Government contribution

1.1 Introduction to Problem 

Pakistan is well know country, Pakistan has made much progress in the field of   Education standard But still in Pakistan there is no Education Standard, The purpose of my this research to identify the those factors who’s Declining the Education Standard in Pakistan .

1.2 Objectives

I am doing MBA from Virtual university of Pakistan, For my this research, in fact I felt that the Education standard is not good in Pakistan , so  in this research my main purpose of selecting this topic to analysis real fact, that causes to Declining Education standard in Pakistan. So according to my view I decided to conduct a research to find the respondent Satisfaction regarding the Education level in Pakistan. My research agenda was to creating awareness about declining education standard in Pakistan.

1.3 Significance

My Research work is for students, teachers and for Government. If they are not satisfied in present Education system, then what reason is, what are the major factor which are causes the declining Education Standard. The major factors will be spelled out for the purpose of identification of the relevant indicators of the standards of education. My research also examine those factors whose leads to improve the Education Standards .

  2.   Literature Review Declining Education Standards in Pakistan

The education system in Pakistan was established in 1947, the first over educational Conference was held in which educational philosophy veering round fundamental Islamic values and the promotion of modern science and technology was laid down. After that new Education policy 1972-80 was established. In this more precise aims and objectives were spelled out in the new education policy, 1972. The National objectives were identified as (a) Equalizing the opportunities of education: (b) arresting the declining educational standards, and (C) correcting the growing in balance between the various types of education.

The statement of goals was accompanied by broad based guidelines which were to provide a framework within which the Provincial Governments and other plans and programmed. Recently The Punjab Education Policy 1997 does not contain any new aims. Rather it reiterates the aims running in the previous policies of course, with varying emphasis. Each policy fixes its own targets to be realized on the termination of the policy. The perusal of educations policies shows that there is commonality of aims.  However, the aims are presented in the context of shifting priorities in each policy.  When policy is running and government suddenly changes, horses are also changed in the mid-stream.  Education policies thus lack continuity yielding little gains to the nation. We may now examine why education has failed to contribute to the non achievement of ideological aims in particular. It is a matter of common observation that owing to the impact of economic values, resting on self-interest, education has failed to promote ideological values in the society.

The politico-economic system works in such a way that it promotes values pertaining to self-growth.  People profess moral values but do not practice them as they cannot confer any material gain on them.  In other hand education has failed to achieve quality, reasons for which have been spelled out in the write-up captioned. “Falling education standards” which need not be repeated here. The education system has failed to bring about a shift from general to technical/vocational education. There is already a glut of arts/science graduates and more additions are being made to the backlog of the unemployed. The situation is serious. The National education policy was announced on March 27, 1998 by the Federal Minister for education, In this policy envisages to 75,000 non formal basic education schools under the aegis of the Prime Minister’s Literacy commission(PMLC) for promoting adult education. The policy also contemplates to introduce evening shifts in the existing 20,000 primary school. Pervious education policies were good tailored documents, but they did not yield the desired results because of poor implementation.

In 1979 a government commission reviewed the consequences of nationalization and concluded that in view of the poor participation rates at all levels of education, the public sector could no longer be the country’s sole provider of education. By the mid-1980s, private educational institutions were allowed to operate on the condition that they comply with government-recognized standards. 1991, there were only two recognized private universities in Pakistan: Aga Khan University established.

Education Standards in Pakistan

In 1983; and Lahore University of Management Sciences established in 1985. By 1997, however, there were 10 private universities and in 2001-2002, this number had doubled to 20. In 2003-2004 Pakistan had a total of 53 private degree granting institutions. The rapid expansion of private higher education is even more remarkable if we look at the number of institutions established on a year-by-year basis. In 1997, for instance, three private institutions were established; in 2001 eleven new private institutions were opened; and in 2002 a total of 29 private sector institutions sprung up.

A child may begin his/her schooling at a pre-school at the age of 3. Over the last few years, many new kindergarten (sometimes called Montessori) schools have sprung up in Pakistan, and many people came. In other hand Formal education in Pakistan starts from around age 5. The first 5 years of school are referred to as Primary. Thereafter, the next 3 are referred to as Middle and the 2 after as High school.

If we view the Secondary level Education level At the completion of High school or 10 years of schooling, students are required to sit for board examinations referred to as Secondary School Certificate examinations or matriculation examinations or more commonly as Metric. These are administered by area boards. Those that receive passing marks (normally 33%) on this examination are awarded a Secondary School Certificate or SSC.

Students may then choose to undergo 2 years of additional schooling (offered both a school and some colleges) after which they sit for the Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC), more commonly referred to as ‘Intermediate’ exams. There is a wide choice of subjects that students can choose from during their ‘intermediate’ years many of which are technical subjects. Students normally read about 5 subjects in a chosen stream such as pre-medical, science, humanities, pre-engineering etc. and then sit for the Higher Secondary School Certificate exam in those subjects which are also administered by area boards. Those that receive passing marks (normally 33% of all subjects cumulative) are awarded a Higher Secondary School Certificate or HSSC.

 

3. Problem Statement

Identify those factors which are causes of declining education Standard in Pakistan. 

 4. Theoretical Framework

After conducting the interviews, completing a literature survey, and defining the problem, one is ready to develop a theoretical framework.

4.1 Inventory Variable

Dependent Variable:

Education Standard In Pakistan

Independent Variable

Money or Income

Teaching method

Tuition System

Management and Supervision

Moderating Variable:

Government 

4.2 Direction of Relation

 

  1.  Income or money  positively influences the Standard Education
  2. Teaching method Positively influences the Standard Education
  3. Tuition system Negatively influences the standard Education
  4.  Management and Supervision Positively influences the Standard Education  

 

     4.3 Explanation of establishing relationship among Variables

Declining Education Standards in Pakistan

Money or Income

Money or income directly influence the Education Standard, when money or income will increase, the Standard Education will also increase but some time due to increase in income it also decline the education standard students go to tuition center .  We know that money is symbolic of the development and recurring expenditure that goes towards education for its overall development.

Teaching method

Teaching method is positively influence the Education Standard, when Teacher teaches with good method, students will pick concept easily. Because teaching method plays a pivotal role in the communication of knowledge to his pupils. If he has good communication faculty coupled with a thorough grasp of his discipline. The teaching methods and techniques are rusty, cranky and antiquated cases the Declining the Education standard.

Tuition System

Tuition system negatively effect the Education standard when any students will go in the Tuition center, it will make negative perception, Tuition system is also effect is indicators that there is very poor system, due to poor teaching method students are force to join Tuition system, because they are not satisfied with school/college/university teaching environment so for remaining satisfaction they contact to Tuition center.

Management and Supervision

Management and Supervision also positively influence the Education Standard, Good management and supervision create education standard because Management signifies any given administrative set up to realize the goals of education as laid down in the national education policy and national development plan. Management and supervision are important variables as they largely affect the working of an education system at different tiers.

4.4  Inventory of Proposition in a Sequential Order

  1.  Income or money  positively influences the Standard Education
  2. Teaching method Positively influences the Standard Education
  3. Tuition system Negatively influences the standard Education
  4.  Management and Supervision Positively influences the Standard Education 

Respondent (Teacher)

 

The table shows tendency of the data, the table shows that respondent (Teachers) qualifies level. The table hereby showing that there is on average between graduating and post graduation. In the Column Experience (Mean) 2.5 is indicate average 5-80 years, you can see that majority of teachers are presently reaching in the secondary and in the higher level. In the table mean 1.5 shows that majority of teachers did not got training. The figure 2 (Mean) exploring the mostly teachers are teaching in English and Urdu Medium. If we look in the table figure no 1.2 column No 6th we can analysis that 70 percent teachers are not satisfied with the running education system in Pakistan. The table is making clearness that Declining Education Standard in Pakistan mostly involves money or income, Teaching Method and Tuition system, the figure 2.45 is shows that main reason of declining Education standard is money.

Respondent (Students)

 

In the above table, table shows the central tendency of the data, in the above table, we can see that age of respondents are on average between 15 to 20 years, Genders mean of 1.5 leads that 68 % students are male. The table shows that mostly students studying in the secondary and higher level. 2 means in the 4th column shows the majority of students are getting education in the English & Urdu medium The Mean 5th column which 3 shows that 71% students are currently not satisfied Education system in Pakistan.. According to table most variables, whose are influencing the Education Standard in Pakistan is Management and Supervision and Tuition system. The value of Declining 3, leads that major reason of declining Education Standard In Pakistan is Tuition system.

Questionnaires 

Respondent (Teacher)

Age________________                                                                  Gender_____________

Q:1 Please state the number of years teaching at this school

  • 1—5
  • 6—8
  • 9—12
  • Or above

 Q:2 Have you completed teacher training/are you a qualified teacher?

  • Yas
  • NO

 Q:3 Do you agree this statement that Teacher Training raise Education standard

  • Strongly agree
  • Agree
  • Disagree

Q:4. Are you aware of the school goals for improving student learning?

  • Yas
  • No

Q:5 . Is your school a safe place to work and learn?

  • Yas
  • No

Q: 6     What type of education medium should be implemented?

  • English
  • Urdu
  • English & Urdu

 Q:7 Do you satisfy with the education system in Pakistan?

  • Strongly satisfy
  • Satisfied
  • Dissatisfied (If Dissatisfied then please go next question)

 Q:8 Under below are few variables who is reason of Declining Education Standard   in Pakistan please mark any who is responsible of your Dissatisfaction

  • Income/money
  • Teaching method
  • Poor Management system
  • Tuition System
  • Other

 Thanks for Your Cooperation

Respondent (Student)

Q1: Please specify your academic qualifications

  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Higher

Q2: What is your standard of getting education?

  • English
  • Urdu
  • Urdu & English

 Q3: What type of education standard should be implemented in all education level?

  • English
  • Urdu
  • Urdu & English

 Q4: Are you getting better at writing sentences or stories?

  • More expertise
  • Poor
  • Very poor

Q5: Do you satisfied with your teacher’s Teaching method

  • Extremely Satisfied
  • Satisfied
  • Dissatisfied

 Q6: Do you Agree that Money or income help to development the Education Standard

  • Totally Agree
  • Little Agree
  • Not at all

 Q7:. Do your teachers help you with your schoolwork when you need it?

  • No
  • Yes
  • Few

Q8:. Do your teachers care about you?

  • Yas
  • NO

Q:9 Do you satisfy with your education system?

  • Yes
  • No (Then go to next question)

 Q:10    Please point to the reasons about your dissatisfaction.

  • Income/money
  • Teaching method
  • Poor Management system
  • Tuition System
  • Other

Thanks For Your Cooperation

 

Hypothesizing.

In this step I tested the relationship between independent and dependent variable. I used multiple regression analysis to show the relation between money or Income, teaching method, Management and supervision and Tuition System. The result of the finding may be you can see in the next pages. Table 1 testing.

T-test is used to show relation between Income and Standard Education in Pakistan. There is positive relation as you can see in scatter diagram in diagram 2. Test is significant, you can see table 4. The third test is also t-test between Teachers behavior and Standard Education in Pakistan. Test result you can see table 5. The value of t-test is table no 2 this test explains that there is linear relationship.

The fourth test is between management and supervision   and education standard. It is also T-test. The result of the finding you can see table 5 which shows the there is relationship between money or Income & Education standard in Pakistan This is positive relationship, increase in Income will increase Standard Education in Pakistan. The value of tb is table no 3 which are also significant.

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Reference

Aamir iqabal anjum (MBA, session 2007), The declining education standards in Pakistan (Academic research project by aamir iqbal anjum)

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