How to Write a Research Proposal of Virtual University of Pakistan
A research proposal is a document that presents a plan for a project to reviewers for evaluation. It is actually a roadmap showing clearly the location from where a journey
begins and the destination to be reached at. The proposal should provide all the necessary. initial information and plan so that the project supervisor can better understand the problem under study.
The purpose of the project research proposal is to:
- Present the topic of the project and its importance.
- Give an idea to the instructor about how you will proceed the project.
- Suggest the size of the sample, sampling strategy, instrument/tool for data collection and procedure of data collection, analysis, and interpretation.
A research proposal is also known as a work plan, prospectus, and outline, statement of intent or draft plan. It tells us:
- What will be done?
- Why it will be done?
- How it will be done?
- Where it will be done?
- For whom it will be done?
- What is the benefit of doing it?
1.1 Introduction: It should include:
- Problem Statement
- Operational definition of variables and concepts
- Theoretical framework of the concepts and variables
- Descriptions of the project title i.e. what this project is all about?
1.2 Literature Review:
The literature review includes the researchers that have been done on the topic/ variables. All the work which has been done should be searched from the books, research journals, databases, and sites. The purpose of the Literature review is to detect what aspects of the topic have been explored and which areas need further
investigation. A researcher has to point out that which aspect has not been investigated previously and what the present project is going to explore. The researchers should quote citations and references of the literature being reviewed according to APA (American Psychological Association Guidelines).
1.3 Significance of the study:
What is the importance and application of your study should be including in this section? When you are taking into account the importance of your study, pose yourself the following questions.
- Why is this research needed?
- What will be the outcomes of this research study?
- Will the results of this research contribute to the solution or development of
anything related to it?
- What will be improved or changed as a result of the
- How will results of the study be implemented and what innovations will come
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The purpose and objective of the research should be included in this section.
1.5 Hypotheses: A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question; a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables (Kerlinger, 1979; Krathwohl, 1988). Hypotheses are relevant to theoretical research and are typically used only in the quantitative inquiry. It is better when Hypotheses will be grounded in the theoretical framework. e.g. “Private employees are more committed than government employees.
Chapter No 2: Methodology
Explain methodology of your project and provide justification. Tip: Keep in view the methodology used on the topic by other researchers previously and provide reference according to APA format.
2.1 Data Collection Tools/Instruments
- Which tools will be used for data collection (i.e. Questionnaire, Structured
Interviews, Observations, etc) according to the need of the project?
- Why is a particular tool selected?
- Is it possible to use multiple tools? If yes provide justification.
- What is the target population?
- What will sampling frame be used?
- What type of sampling technique will be used?
- 2.4 Fieldwork/Data Collection:
How will the data be collected?How will the quality be controlled and assured during data collection?
How will the answers to practical issues be answered? For example
if you are going to carry out the survey, then think about where and for how
long this survey will be carried out? Will organizations (specify names)
provide you access (physical, time, documents) to what you need for your
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