Dare to Ask Mian Aamir Part 9 all about VU Final Project

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Dear sir,

Please explain letter of transmutation and letter of authorization.

Letter of Transmittal is written to release the report to the recipient. It also serves to establish some rapport between the reader and the writer Letter of Authorization is a letter to the researcher approving the project, detailing who has responsibility for the project and indicating what resources are available to support it.

Dear sir, Define limitation in FGD.

Results of the focus group discussions cannot usually be generalized beyond the population from where the participants in FGD came. The moderator may influence focus group discussion and may bias the information.

Dear sir, Please define Case study with example.

Case study is a comprehensive description and analysis of a single situation or a number of specific situations i.e. cases.  It is an intensive description and analysis of a case. The examples could be a case study of a highly successful organization, a project (Kala Bagh Dam), a group, a couple, a teacher, and a patient. You can follow the link to understand case study; http://www.luchzanirato.com/kentucky-fried-chicken-kfc-business-case-studies/.

Please explain reliability and validity in HRM619 Final Project.

Dear Student

Reliability and validity are two important criteria of good measurement. In any research whether, communication or non-communication, reliability and validity is way important. Validity of instrument refers to measure exactly what it is intended to measure and reliability of instrument refers to have consistent result repeatedly.

Please explain inferences form non reactive.

Firstly the concept is Inferences from Non-Reactive Data. Write proper concept if you are intended to ask. Inference means conclusion which refers to deduce meaning after analyzing the content. In content analysis, researcher’s inference play pivotal role in whole analysis. It is difficult to generalize the deduced inferences in content analysis research as there is less objectivity in it.

What is meant by construct please explain with example.

A construct also called a concept is a name, term or terminology which a researcher gives to evidences found in reality. The task of the researcher is to find out the reality; in finding out this reality he observes various objects, attributes, or processes. These objects, attributes, or processes when given a name are called construct. For example, the researcher wants to find out how much employees are willing to work in an organization. This attribute of willingness is given a name “motivation”, now motivation is a construct.

Please explain measurement and coding with example.

Measurement means taking possible observable dimensions of a construct are to be taken while measuring it. For example we want to know about spending habits of consumers. Here we have to define consumers. We classify them in terms of frequency of purchases made or by dividing them in terms of social class. Coding means labeling each category formed in measurement process.

Please explain manifest and latent coding with example.

While doing content analysis researcher can code categories by two ways; manifest coding and latent coding. Dictionary meaning of manifest is clearly apparent and manifest coding is to code categories that are visible and apparent. For example, you as a researcher coded smiley face as happiness, and where you see smiley face, while analyzing the content, you perceive it as happiness. Dictionary meaning of latent is hidden and latent coding is coding in which researcher tries to comprehend the hidden meaning of content. For example, researcher reads full content (story or any phrase) and decides whether written material is about happiness or not.

Coder’s knowledge about social meaning can influence latent coding hence it tends to be less reliable than manifest coding.

Please explain Variables and constructing coding categories with example.

Variables and constructing coding categories is one of the steps of conducting content analysis research. In this step, researcher need to first identify variable that he wants to study. For example variable is empowerment more specifically women empowerment. Now in order to operationally measure the variable researcher has to develop some codes. Codes are usually developed on the base of intensity of occurring. Defined codes help researcher, after reading or watching the content, to measure whether women are being empowered or not. For example, you watch a movie to analyze whether women are empowered or not. In a movie you see the stories of 5 women and each takes her own decision independently. You can say after analyzing the movie that women are highly empowered in it. Codes are helpful in such a way that researcher after analyzing content, categorize the content with respect to the defined code.

Hope it will answer the query.

Please define results, conclusion and recommendations.

Dear Student,

Following is the explanation of terms you asked:

  • ·         Results

This is mostly the longest part of the research report. All the major findings are discussed in it which is obtained from tables and graphs. The results should be organized in coherent and logical way.

  • ·         Conclusions and Recommendations

In this part, the researcher links the findings with the management problem. In conclusion sort of solution is given to clients along with the recommendations for the organization.

Dear sir  tell me with one example participant and non participant observation, also meanings.

In participant observation, researcher observes and studies people by directly interacting with them for example, field researches whereas; in non-participant observation, researcher tries to observe the behavior of people without interacting with them.  For example, observing the behavior of shoppers in a departmental store through a mirror or on a closed circuit TV.

Dear sir what are the important varieties of non reactive observation?

Varieties of non-reactive observation include Physical traces, Archives and Observations. Physical traces include Erosion and Accretion. Archives include Running Records (Regularly produced public records) and other Records (Private records). Observations include External appearance, Count Behaviors and Time Duration.

Dear sir what is importance of debriefing in research?

Debriefing refers to the explanation of any deception with the participants and all the reasons for using deception in the context of the study’s goals. Debriefing retains the goodwill of the respondent and providing incentive to participate in future research projects.

Sir pleases explain statistical control with example.

Dear Student

Once you found the relationship; positive linear or negative linear, next thing is to get confirmed that relationship is genuine and there is no spuriousness in it. In order to see whether relationship is spurious or not researcher has to eliminate alternative hypothesis or explanation from study. In experimental study, researcher actually controls all other alternative explanations but in survey study, researcher controls such alternative explanations through statistics.

In statistics control in VU final project, another variable is taken which is called as control variable and its effect is checked on variables which are under observation. If control variable changes the nature of relationship then it means relationship between dependent and independent variable is not genuine but if control variable does not effect on relationship among variables then it means relationship is genuine.

For example, a researcher is studying IQ level of students of different levels and he found that students of higher level have more IQ. Now he wants to check whether such relation is genuine or not, therefore, he takes gender as control variable. If gender causes any difference in relationship then it means identified relation is spurious and if it does not then it means relation is genuine.

Hope it will answer the query.

Sir please explain linear relationship, negative, positive and curvilinear relationship with example.

A relationship that occurs between variables when change in one variable creates a change of same amount in other variable is called linear relationship. Linear relationship can either be negatively or positively related. Positive linear relationship means that increase in one variable creates an increase of same amount in other variable, whereas, relation will be negative if change in one variable creates decrease in other variable. A curved relationship is called curvilinear, because it approximates a curved line. In curvilinear relationships, the data points increase together up to a certain point (like a positive relationship) and then as one increases, the other decreases (negative relationship). It can also happen the other way round.

Sir please explain about control variable with example.

Control variable is the variable which is held constant in a research in order to study the relationship between two variables. In some researches there are certain variables that can influence dependent – independent relationship and can modify the overall result findings. Thus, in order to have actual results researchers keep those variables constant.

Researchers control variable by keeping it constant for example temperature.

What is 3rd factor? and trivariate table in VU final Project?

Trivariate table consist of three variables. Basically in lesson 32, trivariate tables are constructed to check the influence of control variable on bivariate relationship whether relationship is spurious or not. Trivariate tables consist of multiple bivariate tables.

Third factor is basically third variable.

What is linear and diagonal relationship?

Dear Student

Linear relationship between variables depict that variables are either directly proportional or inversely proportional to each other. Linear relationships can be shown by straight line drawn in diagonal cells. The term diagonal means line joining two nonconsecutive vertices of a square which is a linear line. Thus, when linear relationship between variables is drawn, it forms a shape of diagonal. The term diagonal relation is not used in statistics rather linear relationship is used.

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