# Dare to Ask Mian Aamir Part 8 All about VU Final Project

##### How can we find the number of time error occur?

Dear student,

In question number 2 you are supposed to find how many times same error occurred in given questionnaire, whether 2 times, 3 or 4. You can do so by simple counting and adding the numbers.

##### Dear Sir plz tell me about common error, inconsistencies error, and short coming error, how can i analyze and differentiate them.

Dear student
I appreciate your concern for learning.

Error is deviation from what is correct. Common error refers to when something is shown correct by quoting wrong facts. Shortcomings are what actually do questionnaire lacks, whereas; inconsistency is irregular or erratic statements. With reference activity 07; you are required to read questionnaire first and then find common errors, shortcoming and inconsistencies in the questionnaire.

Hope this clarifies the confusion

##### Dear Sir Please explain determine the period of study.

One of the reasons to select sample is that it determines the period of study. If large population is taken then study will take long time and vice versa in short population. In long time, environmental changes can make a difference in responses of respondent. For example, if a researcher wants to make a census study on consumer behavior of whole population then probably study will take a year. As we know we have summer, winter, spring and autumn in a year then it will be inappropriate to generalize findings of research for whole year, as behavior varies drastically in summer and winter. For such studies a sample should be used in order to determine the period of study whether analyzed behavior is of summer or winter.

##### Sir Please explain save cost, labor and time.

Dear student
You asked about save labor, cost, and time without mentioning any context. However, taking the perspective of data collection methods; labor, cost, and time can be advantage or disadvantage in any data collection method. Labor means how much workforce is required, cost is the expense, and time means time period required to do any task. For example, email survey reduces labor, cost as it can be sent at one point of time to many respondents. It takes less time in sending questionnaire but receiving back response can take long time.

##### Thanks.

When we are in process of making research proposal, dummy tables are developed. A dummy table is a statistical tool used to enhance the decision-making process which is a very fundamental element in research. They are the exact representation of actual tables. Tables are made and hypothetical data is entered. Data analysis is done accordingly then. Developing dummy tables is beyond the scope of this course. However, you are required to know what actually it means.

Sir is there difference field survey survey research.

From your query it is assumed that you have asked difference between field survey and survey research. Field survey means fieldworker is out in field to collect data whereas, survey research means to collect data either by interview or questionnaire whether in field, telephone, postal mail or e-mail.

##### what is the difference between open and closed ended question? at situation these are used?

Open-ended questions are one in which respondent is free to answer in a way he/she likes. Options to answer the question are not given, only vacant lines are present in which respondent writes his answer. Open ended questions are useful in exploratory research when problem is totally new and researcher wants to have clarity of it, opinion seeking, and suggestion.

Structured questions are also called closed-ended questions. Options are given and respondent has to choose his/her response from them.

Closed ended questions include following:

1. Multiple choices.
2. Dichotomous questions.
3. Rating scales.
Closed ended questions are useful when researcher wants to have a desired positive or negative frame of mind of respondents; also when researcher wants to get answer that is limited and can be answered in a few words.

##### Please define what is use of filter questions ? is it necessary or  not and also tell me that why it is done.

By using filter question researcher can make respondent able to answer only those questions he is capable of. For example researcher wants to seek impact of education level on research skills. Question “My PhD has made my research skills stronger” is inapplicable to those respondents who have not done PhD. Hence filter question is needed whether respondent has done PhD or not. Filter questions help in keeping interest of respondent in questionnaire and make him realize that questionnaire is for him.

##### Please explain in easy words layout of the questionnaire.

Layout of the questionnaire is the format of questionnaire. It is preferred to use easy and good format of questionnaire that respondent can easily understand. Instructions are to be added at top of page so respondent can understand purpose of questionnaire. Scale is to be defined easily that takes less time to comprehend and respondent can easily respond. Give each question a number so respondent can easily identify and do not miss any question.

Loaded question are usually challenging, embarrassing and emotionally charged questions that provoke respondent emotionally. Researchers are advised to avoid loaded questions for example, should beggars discourage for begging? Such questions may provoke respondents to answer in favor or against beggars in overwhelming way as these questions hit emotions of the people.

##### Dear sir, Please define avoid ambiguity confusion and vagueness with example:-

Avoid Ambiguity, Confusion, and Vagueness is one of the guidelines of questionnaire development. It means that question should be stated in a manner that it does not create any room for confusion or it does not present any double meaning. For example; if it is asked in a questionnaire that select your marital status as married or single. Now this creates confusion for respondent, if a person is divorced or widow/er, s/he would be unable to select any option.

Before developing a questionnaire; certain guidelines should be followed in order to make questionnaire understandable to target audience. It basically caters to question; what should be asked?.
##### Dear Sir  Please explain in simple words  Statistical control.

Dear student,

Once you found the relationship; positive linear or negative linear, next thing is to get confirmed that relationship is genuine and there is no spuriousness in it. In order to see whether relationship is spurious or not researcher has to eliminate alternative hypothesis or explanation from study. In experiment study, researcher actually controls all other alternative explanations but in survey study, researcher controls such alternative explanations through statistics. In statistics control, another variable is taken which is called as control variable and its effect is checked on variables which are under observation. If control variable changes the nature of relationship then it means relationship between dependent and independent variable is not genuine but if control variable does not effect on relationship among variables then it means relationship is genuine.

For example, a researcher is studying IQ level of students of different levels and he found that students of higher level have more IQ. Now he wants to check whether such relation is genuine or not, therefore, he takes gender as control variable. If gender causes any difference in relationship then it means identified relation is spurious and if it does not then it means relation is genuine.

SIR EXPLAIN ME STATISTICAL REGRESSION IN SIMPLE WORD WITH EXAMPLE NOT FROM THE BOOK IN YOUR WORDS.

In Statistical regression the researchers see the result and if it is unusual or extreme.

For example: We are selecting 8 students of BA class for experiment and we give them extra coaching for their study. After experiment, we draw the result that 5 students have got good marks and rest 3 student fail in the course.

The key point is that while selecting the students we had selected 5 brilliant students and they were already good in study. Here is the selection bias exists as well as statistical regression exist. To avoid such internal validity threat we should select the subject by matching or by randomization.

##### kindly tell me Inferences from Non-Reactive Data & reactive data Example ?

The inference a researcher can or cannot make on the basis of results is critical in content analysis.  Content analysis describes what is in the text.  It cannot reveal the intentions of those who created the text or the effects that messages in the text have on those who receive them.

kindly explain that what is easy to calculate mean ,median,mode or range?

It depends upon the requirement of the study/circumstances. All these are easy to calculate but mostly people thing that range is easy to calculate. In which we subtract the lowest number from the biggest and we get the range

##### kindly explain what is cluster sampling?

Cluster sampling is a sampling technique where the entire population is divided into groups, or clusters and a random sample of these clusters are selected. All observations in the selected clusters are included in the sample. In cluster sampling the units sampled are chosen in clusters, close to each other. Examples are households in the same street, or successive items off a production line.