All students are advised to send us your all queries related research method, business research about research project through email,  be specific with your question and do not ask irrelevant questions at this platform.

## Question

Respected sir,

i don’t undestand the terms inductive logic and deductive logic kindly explain these term through an example that make my vision clear about inductive and deductive logic, and tell me the main difference between these both two terms.

Regards,

### Deductive reasoning:

Deductive reasoning is where researcher starts from a general theory and deduce a specific statement relevant to his research. Here data collection is done on a specific pattern and confirmation of theory is done through data collection.

For example, a researcher has studied that any student having CGPA more than 3.5 in his/her last degree have no 3rd division throughout his/her academic career (Theory). Now he collected data and found that all students in MBA who secured more than 3.5 CGPA had no 3rd division in academic career (confirmation of theory through data collection). (General to specific)

### Inductive reasoning:

Inductive reasoning is opposite to it where data is gathered first and then a theory is established. For example, a researcher was collecting profile information of a MBA students of VU and suddenly he found the pattern that students having CGPA more than 3.7 have no 3rd division throughout their academic career. Then he established the fact and theory that students having more than 3.7 CGPA in terminal degree have no 3rd division in their academic career. (Specific to general)

The main difference between the two is that deductive research confirms the established theory through data collection while inductive research establishes theory after data collection.

Hopefully you will get answer of your query and for any further query feel free to contact.

## Question

Q:- Sir Please explain the Difference between descriptive hypothesis and null hypothesis ?

Sheeba VU

A null hypothesis is usually used for writing a “non-relation” statement. Example may be “there is no relationship between organizational culture and organizational performance”.

Descriptive hypothesis is used to describe a phenomenon and there may not be a specified relationship. Example may be “how much autonomy does state owned organizations have?”

Hopefully you will get answer of your query and for any further query feel free to contact.

## Question

Sir,
How it is possible to perform all these activities like logistical support, transportation, boarding & lodging during pre testing?

Thanks & best regards,

Khalid Mehmood

Dear Khalid Mehmood,

Thank you for using this platform to contact me for clarification of some ambiguities you have about different concepts of pre-testing.

Dear student, when researchers plans the activity of pre-testing then one must aware of the fact that it is not a standalone activity as along with questionnaire pre-testing researchers are also testing the whole procedure of data collection. To collect data, researchers hire some staff like field workers, interviewers, data entry staff etc. Similarly if sample is well spread geographically then researcher have to arrange logistics like transportation, boarding or lodging etc. to reach the sample. To execute all these activities smoothly, researchers at pre-testing stage test the working of staff and functioning of these logistics. If researchers identify any shortfall in the working of staff then researchers make arrangement for training of staff. Likewise if the functioning of logistics is not producing the desired results then researchers arrange alternatives.

Hopefully you will get answer of your query and for any further query feel free to contact.

Thanks

## Question

Dear SIr,

What do you mean by dummy tables? Please give any example.

Thanks & Best Regards

Khalid Mehmood.

Dear Khalid Mehmood,

Thank you for using this platform to contact me  for clarification of some ambiguities you have about the concept of dummy table.

Dear student, when researchers plans the activity of pre-testing then one must aware of the fact that it is not a standalone activity as along with questionnaire pre-testing researchers are also testing the whole procedure of data collection. As a result of pre-testing of questionnaire, researchers get some raw data. After getting some data, the next step is data coding and data entry and for that purpose researchers develop some tables to check whether desired results are understandable through these tables. These tables are dummy tables and if situation demands then these dummy tables are amended for final presentation of results of research.

Hopefully you will get answer of your query and for any further query feel free to contact.

Thanks