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Respected Sir

Can you clarify the term abstract ?What is abstract thinking
Clear my concept about proposition in easy word with example
Clear my concept about :
Theory as a conceptualization and classification
Theory in summarizing role
theory predictis facts
Jazakkalhu khairan

Dear student,
Abstract concept means difficult to understand and measure directly due to not having a concrete and physical existence. Abstract thinking is ability to think in terms of ideas, use concepts and understand generalizations. Abstract thinking is complex, subjective and invisible. Abstract thinkers see the patterns beyond the obvious.

Proposition are statements in which concepts are logically connected with each other that give a certain conclusion. For example,
All men are mortal,
Ali is a man,
Therefore Ali is mortal.
The above given simple example is a set of propositions that logically connects the concepts with each other.

Theory acts as a conceptualization and classification: As theory is built on the base of observed facts and organized by structure of concepts hence, it helps to conceptualize new concepts while developing it. Researchers also conceptualize a new theory based on the various other theories.
Theory plays an important role to summarize what has already researched in such a way that it helps in empirical generalization to summarize the findings of research.
Theory predicts facts means it predicts a new happening on the base of facts, which were observed earlier, on the base of which theory has built. For example if manager observes that motivation level is low among employees, he can predict how motivation level can be enhanced on the base of motivation theories.

Hope it will answer your query.

How to differentiate between moderating and intervening variables? Also explain intervening variable with a real life example? It is hard to understand because above mentioned variables are confounded.

Dear student
For explanation of intervening and moderating variables, please read my previous post

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Please sir explain these words in your own word ?
Presumed cause? presumed effect?
Stimulus Response?
Predicted from? … Predicted to ?…
Antecedent Consequence?
Manipulated Measured outcome?
P redictor C riterion?
Research studies indicate that successful new product development has an influence?

Dear Student

All the concepts which you wrote here are different nomenclature used for independent and dependent variable. You can call independent variable as Presumed cause, Stimulus, Predicted from …, Antecedent, Manipulated, Predictor variable, and dependent variable as presumed effect, Response, Predicted to …, Consequence, Measured outcome, Criterion. Here is the explanation of independent and dependent variable. Those variables that influence others and are not influenced by others are called independent variable. It is a variable that stands alone and isn’t changed by the other variables you are trying to measure. For example, pay scale of employees affects the job satisfaction of the employees. Here you can very well distinguish between independent and dependent variable. As pay scale is affecting job satisfaction, so pay scale is an independent variable and job satisfaction is a dependent variable as it is being influenced by pay scale.

Discrete variables are referred to as dichotomous ? plz explain

A discrete variable is a variable which can only take a countable number of values. If a discrete variable can be categorized into two options, it becomes dichotomous variable. In dichotomous variable two options are given and respondent is bound to choose one of the options. Reponses may be in the form of yes/no, agree/disagree, true/false.

Hope this answers your query.

Sir how intervening variable acts as a dependent variable ?

Intervening variable acts as a dependent variable with respect to independent variable and independent variable with respect to dependent variable. In simple words intervening variable follows an independent variable acts as a dependent variable, but precedes the dependent variable while acting as an independent variable in a causal relationship. For example, higher education leads to higher income. Here education is an independent variable and income is dependent variable. ‘Job’ is an intervening variable because higher education leads to avail better job which in turn leads to get higher income. Now if you look into the relationship separately you will come to know that higher education (independent variable) leads to get better job (dependent variable). Better job (independent variable) leads to get higher income (dependent variable).

Sir kindly explain moderating variables ?

Moderating variable, as the name indicates, is the variable that modifies the relationship of dependent-independent variable. For example, studies found that role conflict leads employees towards job dis-satisfaction. Here role conflict is independent variable and job dis-satisfaction is dependent variable. But respondents who are married face more job dis-satisfaction as compare to those who are single. Hence, here, marriage is a moderating variable.

Sir please impart the illustration of panel study the type of longitudinal research because my concept is not cleared .

Panel study is type of longitudinal research in which researcher does research on same respondents, he took earlier, after specific time periods. For example researcher does a research on 8th semester students to know about their career intension. After a year, he takes same respondents to analyze whether they are on same career they were intended to choose last year then it will be panel study. However, panel study is difficult to pursue as it is sometimes quite difficult to locate same respondents.

Dear Sir How we judge the proposition is testable or not testable?

Dear student, to check whether a proposition is testable or not you need to develop hypothesis(es). A proposition directly is not testable rather its test ability is checked by developing hypothesis. The number of hypothesis that can be developed depends on how many concepts are interlinked in that proposition or how many dimensions are there that explain a concept. The hypotheses are tested by applying different tests. If a proposition is not convertible into testable hypothesis, then one can say that proposition is not efficiently developed.

What are the benefits of the Examine the literature.what are the characteristics and role in literature.

There are a lot of benefits to examine the literature. Such as, literature gives direction to the research topic as well as it refines the topic. Literature provides justification to one’s research, it relates current knowledge with the past knowledge and build a relationship of present with the history. Literature helps researcher to identify the variables and helps in theoretical framework.

Sir please explain report writing?

Dear Student

Please ask only serious question here in which you are facing any confusion, report writing means formally write a research report in a systematic way and segregating all the steps in different sections or chapters.

Sir, please define the research can start without literature review or can not start.

Most of the discussion on this issue is inclined that the type of research is a good determinant to answer the question whether research can be initiated with or without literature review. For an instance if research is of altogether exploratory nature where there is no literature available then research can be initiated without literature review. But in general literature review is essential step for conducting a research as literature review serves the purpose of defining, redefining the direction of research topic, integrating what is known in an area and helps to build researcher’ confidence on topic.

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