# Dare to Ask Mian Aamir Part 5 All about VU Final Project

Question

Dear Sir

Please explain in simple words Inferences with simple in VU final project example and other than in Professional language because you write very hard English.

MC060200350
Thanks

Replied

Inference is last step of conducting content analysis research which is to draw conclusion of the whole analysis. Though it is quite difficult to give conclusion in content analysis because it only reflects the meaning inferred from content and not the true intention of those who actually created that content. In inference researcher tries to answer his research question that he measured by doing content analysis research.

Hope it will enhance your understanding regarding to VU final project.

Question

Dear Sir

Variable and constructing coding categories while writing VU Final Project. Please explain.

Thanks

Replied

IN VU final project Variable and constructing coding categories is one of the steps of conducting content analysis research. In this step researcher basically defines variable operationally first and later makes codes that can measure the desired variable. For example, researcher wants to analyze the lyrics in songs whether they are motivating songs or not. Firstly, he needs to define motivation then he needs to construct codes such as pat-rioting lyrics, self empowering lyrics and etc. that can measure motivation.

Question

Dear Sir
Sir Statistical Regression mean that it is extreme value mean it is consist on high, low and average values show not exact in MBA VU final project.
Thanks

Replied

Dear student while writing VU final project,Statistical regression may affect internal validity of experiment as it creates problem when experimental group, in pretest, shows extreme values and move towards mean at posttest. Extreme values can be both, low extremes and high extremes. For example, a researcher wants to see the IQ level of students. He chooses a group of the most intelligent or having excellent IQ students and a group of average students. He takes test of both groups and finds that group of excellent IQ students score lower as compare to their posttest sore. It is because excellent IQ students begin at an extreme hence it is unlikely that they perform more than excellent so they regress towards mean score. Thus the extremes will not “truly” reflect the causal relationship – a threat to internal validity.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.

Question

Dear Sir,

Please tell me about Theoretical framework and Generation of hypothesis in easy wording and example?
Replied

Basically theoretical framework  is the model that conceptually defines the variables and makes logical relationship among them in VU final project. Theoretical Framework is a model that leads to generate empirically tested hypothesis.  This model is the essence of any research because the model identifies, defines and logically relates variables that are under study. Generation of hypothesis means creation of hypothesis by keeping theoretical framework as a base. For example, there are two variables; advertisement and sales. In theoretical framework you need to define these two variables; their different dimensions and elements, logical relationship among them, direction of relationship and possible propositions. After theoretical framework you need to generate a hypothesis.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.

Question

Dear Sir

Challenge findings to refute a relationship

Sir plz explain why it is only refute or it can also be prove the previous finding true and which relationship is refute by findings

Specify the intervening process and consider link relations. Plz explain in simple words that what is concept, i am much worried about my VU final project.

Thanks

Replied

Examine the literature is a technique to narrow down a topic and develop a research question because research articles identify certain gaps in them that can be filled by doing research on it. Authors, themself, give guidelines for future researches that can become research question of one’s research. Sometimes, while doing literature review, you challenge findings of certain article in order to test the authenticity of that research. Thus, you focus those findings in a new situation and it is how your research question can be built. When you do same research in new situation, it may refute or prove the previous findings. Specify intervening process and consider linking relations means that you may pick up a theory from previous researches and can check how it can be related in different disciplines.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.

Question

Sir plz explain difference between Ethnography and Ethno-methodology regarding to VU final project?

Replied

Ethnography is the study of culture from the perspective of people of that culture. The word ethnography is the combination of two Greek words; Ethnos and grapho. Ethnos means people and grapho means to write and describe something. It is qualitative type of study in which cultural aspects are studied from the people living in that particular culture. For example, if researcher wants to study the culture of Pakistan then he must take data from the people of Pakistan.

Ethno-methodology refers to practices and realities created by people for social interaction and how people interpret those realities. Ethnomethodology is the study of those practices and methods that people use in their daily life for social interaction in their society. For example, most of the Pakistanis greet each other with Assalam-o-alikum whereas people in America use hello and hi for social interaction. If person goes to America and says Assalam-o-alikum while meeting with natives, then there is possibility they don’t understand as saying Assalam-o-alikum is not practiced in their culture.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.

Question

Sir plz explain what is the benefit of non reactive research?

Replied

Non-reactive research is a research in which respondents are unaware that they are being studied. The major advantage of non-reactive research is to get natural social behavior or actions of subjects. It is the most needed when researcher wants real and actual behavior of subjects for his study. If subject are aware of purpose of study then there is possibility they change or imitate their behaviors with respect to that study. Hence, non-reactive research is useful in behavioral kind of researches. For example, a researcher wants to know behavior of male and female drivers on road. Non-reactive study is appropriate to get behaviors that subjects actually possess in order to draw conclusion that who drives better. If drivers are aware of then they might change their behavior of driving and may hide actual behavior.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.

Question

Sir what kind of sample design is appropriate for 1.Degree of Accuracy and 2. Resources
Plz explain with details in simple words.

Replied

Degree of accuracy and resources are two criteria that can help researcher for selecting appropriate sampling technique. If accurate and representative sample is the most needed then researcher might select probability sampling technique. If researcher has no financial and time resources then he might use non-probability sampling technique. However there is no hard and fast rule of selecting sampling technique as it majorly depends upon the type, nature of study and a number of other factors.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.

Question

Dear Sir
plz explain in details which is necessary

1. plz explain the stratification process

2. plz explain the proportionate versus disproportionate. plz Sir give examples for better understand the concepts
3. It is appropriate for which kind of study and when it is necessary to do proportionate and disproportionate
Thanks

Replied

In Stratification process, strata are made on the base of homogeneity among population as population is heterogeneous. Ideally it is done on the base of primary variable which is under study. After making homogenous strata, a list of elements is to be obtained for each stratum. Then researcher needs to number each element and by using table of random numbers a simple random sample is to be drawn from each stratum.

Proportionate number is the number that is even and disproportionate number is the number that is uneven such as, representation of one group is less as compare to other group in selecting a sample. At times researchers want representation of elements in specific proportion. If the number of sampling units drawn from each stratum is in proportion to the relative population size of the stratum, the sample is proportionate stratified sampling. For example, in population there are 40% male and 60% female. While selecting sample, if researcher follows same proportion, such as, in sample size of 10, 4 are male and 6 are female then it is proportionate stratified sampling.
Stratified random sampling is suitable when population is heterogeneous; however, sampling technique depends upon nature of study.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.

Question

Respected Teacher

Please explain the difference between nominal scale and ordinal scale, and how can we represent the data if we have nominal scale and ordinal scale?

Best Regards
Mc110202764

Replied

Nominal data is the data category in which each data element is defined by a label using letters or numbers. (the representation of data depends upon the data type as well). Lets take the given table as an example.

 NAME TEAM RUNS Amin Green 36 Rashyal Yellow 24 Zarlish Blue 18 Barzan Yellow 05

In the given table, ‘Name’ and ‘Team’ represent nominal data and check equivalence and see if one player has the same name as another or if player share similar team.

Ordinal data retains the characters of nominal data with an additional quality of order. Here, the number code assigned to the observations implies ordering. In the given table, numbers can be assigned to the player names, 1 can be assigned to Amin, 2 to Rashyal  and Barzan. If we see the column of ‘Runs’, we see the descending order in the representation of the data.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.

Question

sir will u please more clarify the scarce commodity.

Replied

In economic terms, resources are scarce which means resources are not sufficient to fulfill demands and desires of society as a whole. In order to fulfill demands, efficient and effective utilization of resources is mandatory.

Scarce commodity is product or service that is insufficient to meet the demand of society. For example, CNG nowadays in Pakistan has become scarce commodity which is insufficient to fulfill demand of whole country. In some cases, certain commodity is scare in one situation and same commodity is in abundance in other situation. For example, you are in a dessert where you have one bottle of water and you have to spend 4-5 days. In that situation, water is scarce commodity for you as it can’t fulfill your demand of one bottle per day. On the other hand if you are in metropolitan area where availability of water is in abundance then there is no scarcity of water in that situation.

Term can be used in other disciplines as well with same meaning i.e. insufficient to meet demand.

Hope it will enhance your understanding.